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HANTAVIRUS: Another Global Pandemic Or Irrelevant Issue For Global Concerns

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Hantavirus: All You Want To Know About

Amid the coronavirus pandemic, a case of the hantavirus has emerged in China claiming the life of a man. It has undoubtedly added on to the fear and chaos people are going through. However, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that the virus has sporadic human-to-human spread.

History of Hantavirus:

In May 1993, an outbreak of an unexplained pneumonic illness occurred in the Southwestern United States, in an area shared by Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah recognised as “The Four Corners”. A young, physically in shape Navajo man tormented by shortness of breath was rushed to a medical institution in New Mexico and but soon he scummed to death.

While reviewing the effects of the case, medical personnel understood that the younger man’s fiancée had died some days earlier after showing similar symptoms, this was a piece of data that proved key to identify the disease.

A series of laboratory exams didn’t perceive any of the deaths as a result of an unacknowledged ailment, which includes bubonic plague. At this point, the CDC Special Pathogens Branch became alert. CDC, the state health departments of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah, the Indian Health Service, the Navajo Nation, and the University of New Mexico all joined together to confront the outbreak.

The particular symptoms and scientific findings pointed researchers away from viable causes, consisting of publicity to a herbicide or a new form of influenza, and closer to some virus. Samples of tissue from sufferers who had gotten the disease were sent to CDC for exhaustive analysis. Virologists at CDC used numerous tests, including new methods to pinpoint virus genes on the molecular level. They were capable of connecting the pulmonary syndrome with a virus, precisely a previously unknown type of hantavirus.

All You Want To Know About Hantavirus

Source: Wikimedia

What is it?

The hantavirus is found in the faeces, saliva or urine of rodent. It is transmitted to humans through aerosols ejected by these into the air. By inhaling those aerosols, we stand a threat of catching the virus.

The virus is known after the Hantan River location in South Korea, where one of the early lines of the virus was seen in the 70s.

What are the signs and symptoms?

The preliminary signs and symptoms of the hantavirus infection are fever, muscle aches and dizziness.

The virus displays certainly in either of below-stated form;

The first is hemorrhagic fever with renal failure, and the other is hemorrhagic fever with lung and cardiac involvement.

What takes place after infection?

During the fatal hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the membrane of blood vessels turn out to be greater permeable, and there may be a drop in blood pressure.

There is fast and dramatic damage determined in kidneys for the duration of worst forms of the disease. For the other fatal illness, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), there are muscle aches, fever, fatigue followed by respiratory problems later. The sever damage the virus causes are inside the lung, spleen and gall bladder.

Is there a cure for this?

Vaccines developed for the hantavirus have not been so far wholly a success for all lines of the virus located in extraordinary geographical locations around the world.

However, there is some vaccine which is currently under work-in-progress. So far, the best prevention method stated from getting infected is to keep away from having rodents from homes or offices.

CONSPIRACY THEORY around SARS :

The SARS conspiracy theory started to emerge throughout the excessive acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in China within the spring of 2003.

Sergei Kolesnikov, a Russian scientist and a member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, first publicized his claim that the SARS coronavirus is a synthesis of measles and mumps. According to Kolesnikov, this combination can not be formed in the herbal global, and hence the SARS virus must be produced under laboratory conditions.

Another Russian scientist, Nikolai Filatov, head of Moscow’s epidemiological services, had earlier commented that the SARS virus was probably human-made. There have been publications pointing towards this being a human-made virus in China, as were the probes against China after the advent of the coronavirus. However, the following explanations shall clear this doubt to an extent.

Analysis:

Understanding the mechanism of contamination has been tough as hantavirus doesn’t seem to cause the disease within the animals that it infects. There are theories to apprehend why, together with a co-established evolutionary relationship, but none have medical consensus yet.

As of January 23, 2008, hantavirus was found in India; as eastern India grappled with the avian influenza virus H5N1, virologists had found out another shocker: that the existence of threatening hantavirus had additionally surfaced within the country.

In the first record of proof of hantavirus in India, a multi-institutional study had confirmed 28 cases of contamination among sufferers with persistent renal disease, warehouse workers and participants of the Irula tribe engaged in rodent trapping in the Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.

Hence it is not a new concept nor could possibly be a human-made conspiracy of China, and neither would it develop into a corona-like pandemic.

I am an aspiring civil servant with keen interests in politics , defence and histories . Want the world to be a place of trust and humanity , where one receives reliable information . Let peace prevail .

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Escalation Of COVID-19 Cases Across The Globe

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COVID Case Spike 2021 | News Aur Chai

The United States, India, and Brazil have the most confirmed cases, followed by France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and Turkey. There are very few locations that have remained undisturbed.

Since the middle of last year, confirmed cases have been increasing. Although the actual scope of the first outbreaks in 2020 is unknown because testing was not generally available at the time. The 100 million COVID-19 cases were discovered at the end of January, over a year after it was first diagnosed. As of 6:30 p.m. CEST on July 30, 2021, WHO has received reports of 196,553,009 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 4,200,412 fatalities. A total of 3,839,816,037 vaccination doses has been delivered as of July 28, 2021.

After reaching a record high of over 0.9 million cases on April 28, 2021, new daily instances of the coronavirus continued to decline, reaching a low point on June 21, when over 0.3 million cases were reported. Since then yet, there has been a global increase in cases. On July 15, 0.53 million daily cases were reported, and over three million new cases were reported in the second week of the month. As of July 15, 188.9 million patients have been recorded worldwide. The transmissive Delta form accounting for most infections in 111 countries. Most instances were recorded in Brazil, India, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, and Colombia in the last week. With the steepest increases in Zimbabwe (72%), Indonesia (44%), the United States (38%), Bangladesh (35%), and the United Kingdom (30%). Many Asian nations, including Vietnam, Malaysia, South Korea, and Japan, have reported many daily cases. However, the spread was under control.

The number of new cases in Indonesia has been on the rise, with each day seeing a significant increase over the previous day. Indonesia is now the new Asian epicentre, with 56,757 cases recorded on July 15; India reported 39,000 patients on the same day. COVID-19 fatalities are high, according to WHO. After decreasing for nine weeks, with the highest increases in Africa and Southeast Asia. COVID-19 fatalities worldwide surpassed four million on July 7. The last million deaths occurred in under 90 days, the lowest time interval for every one million deaths ever recorded.

High vaccination coverage has been shown in the United States and much of Europe to lower fatalities and even hospitalizations. For example, United Kingdom rises in incidence. There has been fewer hospitalizations and deaths over 87% of the adult population, as they are vaccinated with one dose and over 67% with two doses. In the United States, the increase in cases is concentrated in states with low vaccination coverage, with unvaccinated people accounting for most deaths. Over 55% of Americans have received one dosage, and 48% are completely immunized. It shifts the focus back to improving vaccination coverage and achieving global vaccine equality to avoid fatalities and the spread of dangerous strains. Some nations debate a booster dosage. Even though many African countries’ healthcare professionals have not been completely vaccinated, booster injections have begun to be given to patients with weakened immune systems in Israel.

In comparison, booster shots have been ruled out in the United States for the time being. With vaccine shortages reported in many Indian states. Even among the vaccinated, rigorous adherence to COVID-appropriate behaviour is the only option to postpone and mitigate the consequences of a third wave.

This spring, India and Latin America have seen a significant drop in new cases in the hardest-hit areas of the world. But the global numbers continue to grow. The Delta variety leads them to well-vaccinated regions such as Western Europe and the United States, low but rising infections. This spring, India and Latin America have seen a significant drop in new cases in the hardest-hit areas of the world. Vaccine doses have been given to over 4 billion individuals globally (52 for every 100 people), yet the discrepancy is striking. More than 80% of the population had at least one shot in some wealthy nations. In contrast, the proportion is as low as 1% in many of the poorest.

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Why Taliban Could Not Control Panjshir Valley In Afghanistan Yet?

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Taliban Panjshir | News Aur Chai

Taliban took over Afghanistan last week, and Panjshir valley in the north is the last hope for the people of Afghanistan to fight against the Taliban.

As it was 25 years ago, there is still a part of Afghanistan that tries to oppose the Taliban; it is the Panjshir valley. The villages that rebelled against the Soviets and Taliban’s, it is now that they’re fighting against the spread of the Islamic Emirate.

Valley Of the Five Lions, also known as Panjshir Valley, is in Northern Afghanistan, 150 kilometers north of Kabul, near the Hindu Kush Mountain Range. Due to its location in the Hindu Kush Mountain range, the Panjshir Valley is only accessible through the narrow Panjshir River; this makes it easy for forces defending. Panjshir is also famously known for emeralds. It has been the base of operations for the Taliban since the 1990s. Since it was never under their control, the area has become a key target for the US-led forces.

Around 150,000 people live in the valley, and the majority are Pashtuns. The valley’s ethnic majority is Tajik. The area’s history has made it the base of operations for the Taliban. Panjshir has never been captured by the Taliban during their earlier rule, nor by the soviets. The resistance, therefore, chose to base its operations in the area due to its history.

After the Soviets left Afghanistan in 1989, a civil war broke out in the country. Ahmad Shah Massoud, who was the most notable anti-Taliban fighter, led a group of militants to fight against the separatists. He was eventually killed by al-Qaeda terrorists in 2001, just two days before the 9/11 attacks.

Following the father’s footsteps, Ahmad Massoud, the son of legendary Ahmad Shah Massoud, declared the start of armed resistance against the Taliban forming in the Panjshir. The Northern Alliance flag has been raised in Panjshir province, confirming the legitimacy of this movement, officially back since 2001. The National Resistance Front (NRF), based out of the Panjshir Valley, led by Ahmad Massoud and the former Vice-President Amrullah Saleh, leading an anti-Taliban Movement.

The Panjshir Valley stands tall against the Taliban under the leadership of Ahmad Masood. Resistance movements have begun with the formation of the Northern Alliance. Bernard Henri Levy, the French philosopher, spoke to Ahmad Massoud on a phone call and quoted saying, “I am the son of Ahmad Shah Massoud, and surrender is not part of my vocabulary.” The Resistance has just begun; this is just the beginning.

The Washington Post published an op-ed on Wednesday in which Massoud reiterated his plea for help, asking the United States to supply his military with arms and ammunition. “The United States can still be a great arsenal of democracy” by supporting his fighters, he wrote.

Since President Ashraf Ghani left Afghanistan, Saleh has declared himself as the interim president. The Taliban has been massing its forces near Panjshir. The Salang highway has been closed. He further tweeted that the militants are avoiding any confrontations with the enemy forces.

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India Takes Rein Of UNSC For August

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UNSC August II News Aur Chai

As per procedure, India received the Presidency of the UN Security Council for August this year. The three major points that the Indian Presidency aims to focus on are maritime security, peacekeeping, and counter-terrorism policies.

What is the UN Security Council?

The security council is a body of the United Nations responsible for international security and peacekeeping. The body settles disputes and identifies unwanted threats and aggressions against member States.

There are 15 Members as a part of the council. They are obligated to abide by the decisions made by the Security Council. Out of these, there are five permanent and ten non-permanent members, India being a part of the newly elected non-permanent contingent.

India is currently serving as President of the UNSC for August and is expected to do so again in 2022. They succeed France who previously presided in July this year. The order of Presidency succession is decided alphabetically. Each member gets a fair chance to preside over the peacekeeping body.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be the first Indian PM to chair a meeting of the UNSC.

India in UNSC

India has joined the UNSC for the eighth time as a non-permanent member, serving a term of two years. The last time India was on the council as a member was in the year 2011-12, during the Middle East Crisis.

In the August meetings this year, the primary concern is said to be that of the coronavirus pandemic and its impact on the economy and mortality. India also aims to bid for a permanent seat on the UNSC and hence a high level of involvement is expected.

India plays an important role in the UNSC as it along with other members of the G-4 (Brazil, Japan, and Germany) are insisting on an expansion in permanent membership for countries. They want the permanent seats to be offered to countries other than the current five that hold the veto power, giving India a chance to display its potential at a global level.

India has previously chaired the counter-terrorism committee at the UNSC and introduced the concept of ‘zero tolerance’ for terrorism globally. They also successfully establish the Financial Action Taskforce (FATF).

This time around, India aims at improving maritime security and peacekeeping while returning to the counter-terrorism policies establish worldwide.

India’s efforts as President in August 2021

India is expected to organise three high-level meetings for the three topics that they have decided to focus on (maritime security, peacekeeping, and counterterrorism). A traditional breakfast of PRs was held by India’s Permanent Representative to the UN, T S Tirumurti. Along with the normal breakfast, Tirumurti put a display of Indian grains with items exquisitely prepared with those ingredients. A treat of Alphonso mangoes was also included in the breakfast. Tirumurti also presided over all meetings of the UNSC on day one.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will chair a meeting of the UN Council virtually, while external affairs minister, Jaishankar will chair the meetings in person.

S Jaishankar expressed opinions on the opportunity to preside over the UNSC for August via his Tweet, saying that India looks forward to taking over the Presidency of the Global Organisation for the month.

Indian PR Tirumurti also thanked their predecessor France and announced the takeover via his Tweets while expressing his elation on the occasion.

India began their eighth term on January 1 this year. This non-permanent arrangement will span for two years, giving the possibility of another Presidency in late 2022. India has been grateful for its turn in chairing the UNSC and hopes to make decisions and resolutions that will be beneficial to the Indian Foreign Policy and countries around the Globe.

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