This April 26, 1986 marks thirty-five years since the worst nuclear accident in human history unfolded at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the then USSR, now located in Northern Ukraine. The accident led to several devastating immediate and long-term impacts and cost around US$ 235 Billion in damages.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was officially known as the Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Nuclear Power plant. It is located near the border of Ukraine and Belarus in northern Ukraine near the city of Pripyat. The plant consisted of four RBMK-1000 type nuclear reactors. The first reactor was made operational in 1977. Subsequent reactors went into operation in 1978, 1981, and 1983, respectively. With its four reactors, the plant produced about 10% of Ukraine’s electricity.
What Led To The Chernobyl Disaster?
The chain of events that led to the accident began on April 25, 1986, when a fourth attempt at the safety test was scheduled. The first three tests had failed to provide a proper solution. The test aimed at forming a safety procedure for maintaining reactor cooling water circulation until the backup electrical generators could provide power in the case of an electrical power outage.
The test was to be conducted during the day shift of April 25, 1986, and preparations for it began at 1:00 AM. The test was scheduled to begin at 2:15 PM. Preparations were carried out, and the emergency core cooling system was disabled. However, the test did not begin as scheduled because a regional power station went offline unexpectedly, and additional electricity output was requested from the Chernobyl plant, postponing the test.
The evening shift replaced the day shift. Meanwhile, the emergency core cooling system was left disabled- which goes on to show there was a general lack of regard for safety at the plant. Finally, at 11:04 PM, the test proceeded, and the evening shift initiated the process. The delay meant that the test, supposed to end during the day shift on April 25, was now extended well into the night shift of April 26. The evening shift left at midnight, leaving the test to be carried out by the night shift. The night shift was never equipped for the test; it was only supposed to maintain the plant’s decay heat cooling systems that were to be shut down.
At 1:23:04 AM, the test began, and at 1:23:40 AM, the emergency shutdown, also known as scram, was initiated. As the scram continued, the reactor output jumped to 10 times its average operational value. This led to a steam explosion, caused by the damaged fuel rods, which blew the upper biological shield through the roof of the reactor building. The entire reactor assembly was attached to the upper biological shield. A second more powerful explosion happened immediately within two to three seconds, and it dispersed the already damaged core. It ejected hot lumps of graphite moderator. The ejected graphite and the demolished graphite channels in the damaged reactor caught fire on exposure to air. This significantly contributed to the nuclear fallout from the disaster.
The disaster was caused by a combination of violation of safety protocols and design flaws in the plant, which were kept hidden from the plant operators.
Attempt To Hide It From The World
Initially, there were attempts to hide the disaster from the world. After Swedish authorities detected a higher than average radiation level in Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden and determined that the radiation was coming from the USSR, the announcement was made. The Soviet authorities tried to deny any accidents in the country and relented only after the Swedish threatened to file an official alert with the International Atomic Energy Agency. An official announcement was made on the evening of April 28, 1986.
How Was It Contained?
The roof of the reactors was constructed using a combustible material called bitumen which violated safety protocols. The hot ejected graphite led to fires on the roof of the neighboring reactor no. 3, which was still operating and wasn’t shut until 5 AM. Firefighters began arriving at the site at 1:45 AM but were not aware of how harmful the radiation was. The fires were brought under control by 5:00 AM, but the fire inside the reactor kept burning till May 10, 1986. The fire inside the core was attempted to be put out by dumping a mixture of sand, lead, clay, and boron from helicopters. It took around 600 pilots to carry out the operation. It is now known that virtually none of this mixture reached the core.
There were also two floors of blubber pools beneath the reactor, which were used stored water for the emergency cooling pumps. After the disaster, the basement flooded with firefighting water, and there were severe chances of another steam explosion happening, which would have released more radioactive material into the atmosphere. Thus it was essential to drain the blubber pool. The task was carried out manually by three engineers. The risk of a steam explosion decreased after the pools drained. There were still possibilities of this if the molten core reached the natural water table. It was decided to make a graphite-concrete cooling system below the reactor by excavating a tunnel.
Almost 100 tonnes of radioactive debris on the roof had to be removed to construct a containment structure, later called the sarcophagus, safely. Humans primarily achieved this task on protective roofs.
Construction on a containment structure could begin after they removed the debris. This was essential to prevent the spread of contamination by natural elements like wildlife, rain, and wind. It was decided to enclose the reactor with a substantial composite concrete and steel structure. Its construction began in June and was finished in November.
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
Initially, an area of 30km in radius was to be the exclusion zone. It was officially called the “zone of alienation”. The area is now largely covered by forests and abundant wildlife and was later expanded to 4,143 sq km to include more contaminated areas. While Ukraine state authorities say the area will become habitable in 300 years, some nuclear experts say it might be 20,000 years before the area becomes habitable.
Human And Environmental Impact
The evacuation of the people living in the nearby city of Pripyat did not commence immediately after the disaster. Residents reported various illnesses and metallic tastes in their mouths. The evacuation order came 36 hours after the initial blast and the process began at 2 PM on April 27, 1986. Between 1986 to 2000, approximately 350,000 people were evacuated and permanently resettled from the region.
In the disaster, 28 people died due to the accident, and more than 100 were injured. Since the accident, many reports have claimed thousands of people exposed to radiation suffered from cancer. The reports are, however, highly debated, and their claims are disputed.
The impact of the disaster on the environment is also highly researched. Immediately after the disaster, the surrounding forest turned reddish-brown and died, which earned it the name ‘red forest’. In Belarus, 23% of its land was contaminated, and a fifth of its agricultural land became untenable.
The Chernobyl exclusion zone is now lush with wildlife which is thriving due to a lack of human intervention. However, there have been higher levels of cataract and albinism in animals. There is also a lack of beneficial bacteria in the region. As a result of the disaster, many animals died or suffered from stunted growth. There were also cases of animals born with deformities such as missing limbs.
Over the years, the Chernobyl disaster has fascinated people around the world. It has inspired fiction worldwide and was the subject of the hit HBO TV series “Chernobyl”. Today, the exclusion zone is open to tourists who want to explore the area and know its history.
All You Need To Know About National Institute Of Food Technology Entrepreneurship And Management Bill 2021
On July 26, 2021, Lok Sabha passed a bill under the ministry of Food Processing Industry. The bill is titled as National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management Bill, 2021. The main motive of this bill is to address issues with the Food Processing Industry, Entrepreneurship and one Institution for National Importance. With the passing of this bill, the Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT) and National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM) is now merged as Institutions of National Importance, and it aims at providing various research and advancement in learning about the Food Industry and its associated branches. The bill was first introduced in the house in February 2019 but was pending due to protest by the opposition.
Significance of Institutions of National Importance (INI)
With the passing of this bill, the institutions enjoy greater autonomy through which they can carry out various courses, research attracting skilled faculties and students from all over the country and overseas. Good standards in education will be adopted to improve the present and future of education in this branch and sector, overcoming the technological gap in the country. This law aims to improve and introduce new changes in food, bio-nanotechnology, cold chain technology etc. The desired efforts will be taken in terms of human resources and infrastructure developments, labs for research etc. Liberty to open centres anywhere in India is also granted to INI and include courses regarding food technology certification and improving the workforce of the country.
Some other important features of this act are the Institution has been authorized with the Board of Government, Senate and other acting Authorities. The Council of Board will include 16 members from different branches from the same field. The Head will be Chairperson, who will be a skilled person from the Food Industry, the Director, Dean and Registrar. Members appointed from Centre and State Governments, Members from FSSAI and Council of Agriculture Research, as mentioned in the bill. The 16 members of the board will carry out work of taking administrative decisions, creating annual budgets and paths for institution progress as an organization, establishing departments, their appointment terms of services, faculties etc. The Board of Council also holds power to grant Honorary Degrees and Diplomas. The Senate shall be the principal academic body of the Institute, consisting of the people such as Director as the Chairperson; Registrar; Full-time skilled level Professor; and Three academically skilled Individuals nominated by the board from the field.
The Union Minister of Food Processing Industry, Mr Pashupati Kumar Paras, expressed his gratitude to PM Modi for this landmark step in this industry from his Twitter handle, indicating new opportunities in Food Technology Industries. Therefore, this Act looks promising on paper with new opportunities and in Educational Development. Amidst the Pegasus Spyware and repeal of the farm laws, this looks positive from the Modi Government.
लोकसभा में आज, राष्ट्रीय खाद्य प्रौद्योगिकी, उद्यमिता और प्रबंध संस्थान विधेयक, 2021 (निफ्टेम विधेयक, 2021) को पारित किया गया।
इस विधेयक के पारित होने पर इससे जुड़े हर व्यक्ति को बधाई देता हूँ और साथ ही खाद्य प्रसंस्करण से जुड़े छात्रों को भी बधाई देता हूँ। @MOFPI_GOI
— Pashupati Kumar Paras (@PashupatiParas) July 26, 2021
Curious Case Of Pegasus: Explained
Pegasus is a spyware that can hack the victims’ mobile phones and read their SMS messages and emails. The Pegasus spyware is owned by an Israeli software company named NSO Group. According to the various reports, this company has targeted more than 50,000 phone numbers at the Global level, of which 300 are in India for surveillance.
The news broke out after the 17 media partners investigated. This investigation brought into the picture information about a leaked database of mobile telephone numbers of Indian Ministers, Opposition leaders, journalists, the legal community, business people, government officials, scientists, activists and many influential personalities of the nation.
Pegasus Spyware and India
According to the report by the agency, the Israeli company which sells Pegasus around the world says that its clients are confined to ‘vetted governments”, believed to number 36. The NSO Group also says that ‘the target list in India is not ours, never was.’ Their refusal of the leaked database has created a loophole in understanding this case.
This whole case has violated the integrity of democratic institutions. According to the report by the agencies, after the mobile phones of the opposition leader Rahul Gandhi and various other leaders were hacked under the Pegasus spyware surveillance. Multiple tweets were made against the Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) government in India. This whole case has become one of the major threats in the political arena and the Indian Democracy.
Though at the start, it was used for national security purposes. The explosive expansion of surveillance technology vendors has become a vast human rights and a global security issue. If such surveillance technologies increase, it might cause a lot of problems to countries around the globe. Hence, as a precaution, all these countries need to work on regulating this technology.
According to the reports by the agency, one of the targeted phones by the Pegasus spyware was of the former election commissioner of India, Ashok Lavasa. Various such people and such opposition leaders were somehow against the BJP government having their phones hacked with the NSO-owned spyware. All these instances and the names in the leaked list have pointed figures towards the Modi Government.
The Modi government’s stand on this case was put forward in Lok Sabha by two serving ministers, Ashwini Vaishnaw and Prahlad Singh Patel. These two leaders were also featured in the leaked database. The recent Information Technology Minister, Ashwini Vaishnaw defended the BJP government in the parliament by saying, “the expose was an attempt to malign Indian democracy and its well-established institutions.” She even said, ‘any form of illegal surveillance is not possible with the checks and balances in our laws and robust institutions.’
This case has adjourned the parliament proceedings due to the protests inside and outside the house of parliament by the opposition party.
Pegasus Spyware and World.
In the statement given to the agency, Access Now, an organisation defending the digital rights of global users, said it was outraged that products sold by NSO were allegedly “used to hack and invade the private communications” of thousands of people across the globe.
At a global level, France’s Emmanuel Macron was targeted in the Pegasus spyware case. As the phone of French President Emmanuel Macron was hacked, the investigation was carried out and later on was published which was directed by the Paris-based non-profit journalism group Forbidden. After this case came in front of the whole world, the Pegasus spyware surveillance came into the picture.
If this continues for some more time, it will ruin India’s Democratic values at a global level. As well as this might become a huge technological threat between the different nations around the globe.
Modi Cabinet 2.0: Young and Dynamic Leadership or Otherwise
On the 7th of July, the union government announced the biggest cabinet expansion in the 7 years of NDA rule. The recent expansion increased the size of the Council of Ministers from 53 to 77. About 43 new ministers were sworn in, 15 of which were Cabinet Ministers and 28 Ministers of State (MoS). This is the first cabinet overhaul in the second term of NDA governance.
Experts however claim that the new cabinet expansion is a pre-emptive measure to balance electoral formulae in different states ahead of the 2022 State Assembly elections. It is also conjectured that the reshuffle comes as rectification of prolonged criticism about BJP’s governance in the past 2 years, including the Healthcare management during the Pandemic.
The Performance Paradox
This recent cabinet expansion is a report card of the BJP government’s performance in the last 2 years. Major ministerial changes, such as the resignation and replacement of Dr. Harshvardhan as the Health Minister indicate a confession of their mismanagement of the pandemic.
He has been replaced by Mansukh Mandaviya, a 2 time Rajya Sabha MP who has also been awarded by the UN for initiatives in Women’s healthcare in the past. His appointment as the Health Minister is one of hope for BJP, to change and streamline (a.) the COVID-19 Pandemic response and (b.) BJP’s image in the name of healthcare management.
On the contrary, Anurag Thakur’s promotion from MoS Finance to a Cabinet Minister defies all logical explanations for awarding performance. Not only has India’s economic condition worsened under his management, his controversial statements like “Desh ke Gadaaro ko…” do not present a strong case for him. His appointment is a political investment by BJP in Himachal Pradesh’s state elections next year which happens to be Thakur’s home state.
Similarly, Sitharaman’s finance ministry has remained untouched, after historical mismanagement of our Finance capabilities. All of this reflects a selective approach adopted by BJP, which is one of political hesitation and hyperopic ignorance.
BJP’s Political Calculator
Apart from the ‘punishment’ narrative, the new cabinet expansion has also given an insight into BJP’s political planning. This expansion has incorporated key leaders from several states that go to elections next year. Moreover, it has also been carefully planned to cover the losses BJP has incurred in the past two years.
As a reward for dismantling the elected Madhya Pradesh government and tipping scales in BJP’s favor, Jyotiraditya Scindia was appointed as the Cabinet Minister for Civil Aviation (a post held by his father as well in ’91) almost after 3 years.
On the contrary, Pashupati Kumar Paras got an early reward for breaking down Lok Janshakti Party’s (LJP) representation in Lok Sabha. He was appointed as the Union Minister for Food Processing, after the attempted coup on Chirag Paswan’s leadership.
Sarbananda Sonowal, who was replaced by Himanta Biswa Sharma as the Chief Minister of Assam after the fresh elections, was also awarded a berth in the Cabinet. It is conjectured that this development was in talks ever since Himanta Biswa Sharma was chosen as the CM.
As the Uttar Pradesh elections near, BJP also made sure to improve representation from the state. Major appointments such as Niranjan Jyoti (MoS Food Processing), Anupriya Patel (Mos Commerce and Industry), and Bhanu Pratap Singh Verma (MoS MSME) were made majorly because of their heavy support base in UP.
Following the same lead, Ajay Bhatt from Uttarakhand was appointed as MoS Defence and Tourism. As seen earlier, BJP has made major organizational changes in Uttarakhand which goes to elections next year.
In the mirage of calculated placements and image reconstruction, BJP has hit a few rights with this organizational change. The new cabinet includes a maximum number of women to have ever served in a Union Cabinet, a first in a nation with largely patriarchal tendencies.
The cabinet has also tried to focus on bringing people with commendable background experience and education on board. Ashwini Vaishnav, former IAS and an alumnus of Wharton School have been given major ministries such as Railways, Communications, and IT. Similarly, Anupriya Patel who has been given the Commerce and Industry as an MoS has also served as an educator at Amity University.
Moreover, the diffused reliance on regional strength has become the overarching theme in this cabinet reshuffle. Even though the ruling party intends to balance the voter dynamics, this regional unity has become something to watch out for.
Yet, the big story remains the ouster of major politicians who have served loyally and faithfully to this government. Ravi Shankar Prasad, Prakash Jaavedkar, and Dr. Harshvardhan are major losers in this dynamic reshuffle. While the current government has tried to modernize the leaders of this nation, it has set a new precedent that loyalty is not the most critical virtue anymore; Election Commission’s schedule is.
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